Informacje o kraju
Belarus is a country with an ancient history and rich traditions; With magnificent nature and amazing architecture, which combines the heritage of Western European and Eastern Slavic traditions of architecture. Belarus is famous for its forests and lakes - it is not without reason that it is called the "lungs of Europe". Belarus is wide light avenues and narrow cobblestone streets, Catholic churches and Orthodox cathedrals, majestic castles and wooden huts in the villages, nourishing and delicious national cuisine.
The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of Europe, in the Central European time zone: GMT + 3 hours.
The Geography of Belarus
Belarus is located in the center of Europe, has common borders with five states: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and Latvia. The territory of the country covers an area of about 207.6 thousand square kilometers: the length of the state borders from west to east is 650 km, and from north to south - 560 km. The country is landlocked, but due to its geographical location it is an important trade and transport corridor between Europe and the CIS countries. Belarus is located at the intersection of the Trans-European transport and communication corridors "West-East" and "North-South".
The capital of Belarus
Minsk - the capital of the Republic of Belarus - a city located in the heart of the country. The first written mention of the city dates back to 1067. For its history, Minsk was destroyed and rebuilt dozens of times. Most of the city suffered during the Second World War, when it was destroyed almost completely.
To date, Minsk is a modern European city. Here live almost 2 million people. The city has excellent transport links, including an airport, a major railway station, several bus stations. The metro operates in Minsk, the motor transport system is well developed.
Main regions of Belarus
The Republic of Belarus is divided into 6 regions (Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk and Mogilev regions), comprising 118 districts, more than 100 cities, 111 urban settlements, more than 24,000 villages.
Climate and weather in Belarus
Moderately continental climate of Belarus is formed under the influence of air masses of the Atlantic. Winter, as a rule, is mild with prolonged thaws, and summer - moderately warm.
The average air temperature varies depending on the regions of Belarus. In July, the average temperature is + 17 ° C in the north to + 18.5 ° C in the south; In January ranges from -4.5 ° C in the south-west to -8 ° C in the northeast.
On the territory of Belarus, an average of 600-700 mm of precipitation falls annually. 70% of precipitation in the form of rain falls in April-October. The number of snow days in Belarus is from 75 in the south-west to 125 in the north-east. The maximum height of the snow cover is from 15 to 30 cm, respectively.
The nature of Belarus is unique. The relief is mostly flat-hilly. The average height above sea level is 160 m. Here rare species of plants and animals grow. To protect the Belarusian nature from the destructive influence of man, large nature protection projects are being implemented in the country, state reserves and reserves have been established.
Forests of Belarus occupy about 65% of the country's area. They grow 28 species of trees and about 70 species of shrubs. The most common tree species are:
Birch (all over the country)
Pine (all over the country)
Spruce (northern areas)
In the republic there is one of the largest in Europe massifs of the primitive relic forest - Belovezhskaya Pushcha.
The animal world of the country is represented by inhabitants of mixed forests, taiga and steppes. Important economic importance are game-hunting species of animals - fox, marten, hare, otter, polecat, ermine, as well as moose and wild boar. More than 180 species of animals are protected by the state. In the deciduous and mixed forests with a developed grass cover, mainly in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha, representatives of relict ancient fauna also live - bison (zubr)
On the territory of the republic there are about 300 species of birds.
To protect rare and endangered species of plants and animals, the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus was created, as well as four National Parks (Belovezhskaya Pushcha, Braslav Lakes, Narochansky, Pripyatsky), the Berezinsky Biosphere Reserve and numerous reserves. The total area of protected areas is about 7% of the country's area.
The territory of Belarus is a watershed for the basins of the Baltic and Black Seas. In total there are 20.8 thousand rivers. Their total length is about 90.6 thousand kilometers. Accordingly, hence the national name of our country - Belarus is blue-eyed
The largest rivers (their total length is more than 50 km):
Belarus is a real lake district. There are more than 10 thousand of them here. The deepest, most diverse and spectacular lakes are found in the Byelorussian Lakes. The largest - Lake Naroch - covers an area of about 80 square kilometers. There are also 136 artificial reservoirs in the country, the largest of which is Vileika (79.2 square kilometers).
More than 2.5 hectares of Belarusian land are occupied by marshes.
Population of Belarus
Belarusians are friendly and good-natured people, known all over the world for their peace and patience.
The population of Belarus as of January 1, 2010 was 9,503 million people. The Republic is a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state. The average life expectancy is 70.5 years. The share of the urban population is 74%.
Population of Belarus (census, 2009):
83.7% are Belarusians,
8.3% - Russian
1,7% - Ukrainians
0.1% - Jews
Also in Belarus live Tatars, Gypsies, Lithuanians and Latvians.
Languages of Belarus
Belarusian and Russian are the state languages of Belarus. Other languages, such as Ukrainian, Polish and Hebrew, are used at the level of local communities.
Religions in Belarus
Orthodoxy and Catholicism prevail in Belarus among religious movements. To a lesser degree, Uniatism, Protestantism, Judaism, Islam and other religions are represented here. In total, there are up to 25 religious denominations in Belarus.
In Belarus, the freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution of the country. In the republic, the number of believers increases every year, the number of churches grows. Constantly developing a network of educational institutions in which representatives of different faiths can receive religious education. The state supports constructive initiatives of representatives of various religions. At the same time, work is being done to prevent the activities of destructive religious sects.
Traditional handicrafts in Belarus
The Byelorussians have a long history of traditional arts and crafts, many of which exist and are developing now. Among the main crafts: weaving, woodworking, pottery, straw.
Traditional Belarusian Culture
Byelorussians have preserved many forms and forms of traditional culture, such as handicrafts and folk crafts, everyday life, which you can get acquainted with in numerous museums, scansenes, agrohounds. The Belarusian folklore and musical and theatrical traditions are rich in their content.
Duda for Belarus is the same as the bagpipe in Scotland. Without this musical instrument, one event in life could not have been earlier. The melody of Duda accurately conveys the national character. In Soviet times, it was consigned to oblivion, but now the Dudar tradition is reborn. Dudar conferences, festivals, discotheques, the invitation of a dudar to celebrate special events in life is gradually becoming commonplace. Our guests have a unique opportunity to get acquainted with this mysterious musical instrument that has come down to us from the depths of centuries
Belarus is rich in its folklore and mythology. A lot of fairy-tale characters can be found on the Belarusian land.
The main traditional holidays are Christmas (December 25 and January 7) and Easter (passing date), which are celebrated twice a year in the Catholic and Orthodox calendar. In the folk tradition, Christmas has an ancient pagan name - Kalyady (winter solstice day), and Easter - Vialikden (the day of the spring equinox).
Women's Day is celebrated annually on March 8
Day of Work is celebrated annually on May 1
Radunitsa - the spring day of the remembrance of ancestors, following the Eastern Slavic tradition, is celebrated on the 9th day, on Tuesday, after Easter. It is an official state day off. The autumn day of the commemoration of the ancestors of "Dzyady", following the common European tradition, is celebrated on November 2.
The Kupala night, which is the most mysterious and full of wonders of the year, is celebrated on days close to the summer solstice - from 23 to 24 June. In the Orthodox tradition - from 6 to 7 July. .
Dozhinki - a harvest festival, is also a rolling (celebrated in September). Today it has received the status of the state, on which workers of rural labor are honored.
Independence Day is celebrated every year on July 3.
Victory Day is celebrated annually on May 9
The Belarusian ruble (BYN) operates on the territory of Belarus. Since July 1, 2016, banknotes and coins of the 2009 model of the following denominations have been issued: banknotes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 Belarusian rubles; Coins with denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Belarusian kopecks, as well as denominations of 1 and 2 Belarusian rubles.
The most popular currencies are the US dollar, the euro and the Russian ruble.
For international calls, dial "8", then wait for a long beep, dial "10" + code of the country to which you call + area code + phone number.
101 - Rescue Service
102 - militia
103 - emergency medical care
105 - reference service of the railway station
Telephone codes of the regional Belarusian cities:
162 - Brest
212 - Vitebsk
232 - Gomel
152 - Grodno
17 - Minsk
222 - Mogilev
To tourists on a note
Most stores in the country work from 09: 00-10: 00 to 20: 00-21: 00, supermarkets usually work a little longer - until 22: 00-23: 00. Shops are open around the clock.
Banks are open from Monday to Friday from 09: 00-09: 30 to 17: 00-17: 30. You can exchange currency in banks and exchange offices, and all exchange transactions must be accompanied by a special form that confirms the legality of the exchange (all exchange receipts must be kept before leaving the country).
International credit cards, including American Express, Visa, MasterCard, Cirrus, Electron, EuroCard are accepted in large hotels, restaurants and supermarkets.
Tipping is usually 10% of the bill.
Belarus is a wonderful country for tourism. In it there is no such thing as "no season". Pleasure from the trip can be obtained, both in July and in February. From May to September - the most convenient time for outdoor recreation, walks and excursions; Spring and Autumn are great for hunting, fishing and sanatorium treatment; Winter for skiing, snowboarding and skating.